Portugal is a Western European country that is part of the European Union. It has 10,752,000 inhabitants and an area of 93,392 km. Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal. It is the westernmost major city in continental Europe.

The sovereign state is a monarchy with a parliamentary system, a representative democracy, and a semi-presidential system. It is one of the oldest monarchies in the world, dating back over 900 years.

    1. History
      1. Roman Lusitania and Galicia
      2. Islamic Era and the Reconquista
      3. Independence and Afonsine era
      4. Iberian Union, Restoration, and Early Brigantine Era
      5. Napoleonic era
      6. Constitutional monarchy
      7. First Republic 
    1. Geography
    2. Politics.
      1. government
      2. Military
    3. Demographics
    4. Culture
      1. Architecture
      2. Literature
      3. music
      4. Sports 


Portugal is considered to be one of the oldest countries in Europe. Its history is a combination of Iberian tribes, Celtic peoples, the Roman Empire, Germanic Empires, the Muslim Revolution, the Christian Holy War that followed, and world exploration.

The capital Lisbon also holds the record as the oldest continuously used part of Europe as the site for an urban area with inhabitants dating back to 400 BC. and also houses one of the largest public squares in Europe before the national audience. Portugal became an independent nation-state during the international war and economic crisis as the result of a full conversion to democracy during the 1974 coup, so subsequent development and success have been problematic at times with unfinished economic growth or unchecked decentralization. President Marcelo de Franca Duodo is now managing Portugal by giving it access to key markets without repression. As wine production continues uninterrupted, so does the slow, but steady wine industry of the country. Portugal is a nation-state located in Western Europe, bordering the North Atlantic and Southern Oceans, between Spain and France. The country borders Spain to the north and east and Andorra to the south.

Roman Lusitania and Galicia

The Romans fell in 218 BC. invaded the Iberian Peninsula, eventually defeating the rebellious tribes and founding new settlements.

The most populous of these were called Centum Léntium. Popularly known as Lusitania, it was later extended to include all regions extending north of the plain of Antas (now known as Zamora) and its environs. Its name has obvious connotations with “the light” but could also refer to its predominant habitation: Lauriana is a laurel species native to the region. The other two most populous regions were called Catur Léntium and Satrimonia. The former was later renamed Gallaecia, by which name it is known today, while the latter was renamed Hispania. The term “Lusitania” seems to be a classical Latin translation of an earlier Celtic name: “Lar idea” or “Laridunon”. The Lusitanians were a tribal nation with a rich history in the northwestern Iberian Peninsula, made up of several tribal cantons. Their territory and name were first recorded as belonging to the Roman province of Lusitania, which happened to be on the east coast of modern Portugal.

Around AD 9 Jerusalem was added to Galicia. A kingdom with Itálica until AD 584 or AD 880 by Muslims. Jordanes noted this in his topography near the Mactar Garamantum Regia. At the time of Rome’s imperial decline, the region was invaded by Suevi and Vandals. The Visigoths arrived in 409 and ruled Galicia until 585.

Islamic Era and the Reconquista

Muslims occupied parts of southern Spain for about 700 years. As a result, many cities in southern Spain today have a strong Islamic flair

In 711, less than a week after the Muslim conquest of the Visigoth kingdom in Hispania, Tariq ibn Ziyad led an army of Muslims across the Strait of Gibraltar into Iberia and defeated Roderic at the Battle of Guadalete. The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was a vast new expansion of Islam beyond its traditional limits. Muslims occupied

Spain’s Muslim empire had expanded at lightning speed by the early 9th century. They practically encircled the Christian kingdoms of Asturias and León to the north. They were finally stopped in 912 by the famous Battle of Covadonga in northern Spain, which became known as the start of the Reconquista. After a decade of constant warfare, the Kingdom of León-Castile emerged victorious. A few years later it was clear who was in charge in Spain when Alfonso III. brought Muslim power to its knees. In 1086, the First Crusade came from Europe to attack Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula. The Spanish Christians formed alliances with other Christian countries. defeat the Muslims and successfully expel them from Spain. However, this did not mean the end of Islamic aggression in Europe – many more crusades followed. One of these was the crusade of Peter I, King of Aragon, which culminated in a victory over the Muslim emirate of Sicily near Trapani in 1189. The supremacy

For 700 years the Muslims were safe in Lisbon until they were overthrown by a Christian offensive in the east in AD 276-714. In 1492 the Portuguese Reconquista was completed when the Muslims expelled from Granada left their last stronghold, Tangiers, 1492. At the time of Moulay Idriss II, a mosque was built next to the Great Mosque of Kairouan. The building is almost completely preserved. He also had a large palace west of the Haoussa district (Arabic: ديار العوساء “Dā r al-‘Ouṣā”), which was described by historian al-Maqqari as “one of the most beautiful palaces in North Africa”. The mosque was built around 590 by Abd Al-Malik, son of Moulay Idriss II.

Independence and Afonsine era

Afonso managed to defeat his larger and more powerful enemy even with far fewer forces, allowing Portugal to regain its independence from Spain.

Afonso managed to defeat his larger and more powerful enemy even with far fewer forces, allowing Portugal to regain its independence from Spain.

In 1138, Pope Innocent II bestowed the title of “Marchio” on Afonso Henriques. Afonso consolidated his independence from Spain. He was imprisoned by the king’s army but managed to escape and on July 25, 1139, he defeated the king’s army at the Battle of Ourique and became the head of an independent country. This is also known as “Segundo corónica”. After the battle, he received papal recognition and was crowned King of Portugal by the Pope, later confirmed by Manuel I. At his coronation, which took place in Coimbra on August 3, 1139, Afonso took an oath to defend the Church and attacked several Muslim states along the coasts of Africa.

With such a victory, one can only imagine what history Portugal might have looked like had it been subdued again in 1583!

Afonso Henriques had a younger brother, Sancho. Sancho was often referred to as “Sancho Panza of Portugal” because he always managed to get his brother out of difficult situations. In 1112 King Alfonso VII of León and Castile died and Sancho became heir to the throne. Afonso Henriques, however, was

Iberian Union, Restoration, and Early Brigantine Era

Portugal voluntarily joined a dynastic union between 1580 and 1640 that took place because the last two kings of the House of Aviz died without heirs. This event led to Portugal entering into a dynastic union with Castile because during this period Castile mobilized large armies to assert their control of Portuguese territory. Unlike King Phillip III. of Portugal, Philippe II fought Phillip with his armies and attempted to conquer Portuguese territories. This was the beginning of the expulsion of the Jews from the Iberian Peninsula by royal decree in 1497 and expropriation in 1391

This war lasted twelve years, but the damage was done to both countries. After death befell King Philip IV’s wife, Maria Madigez de Habsburgo-Lorraine (Maria), in 1616, Philip married his niece, Maria Anna of Savoy. She was the daughter of Ferdinand, the younger brother of Philip III. This marriage between Philip IV and Mary united the two countries under one dynasty. In 1714, Louis XIV of France invaded and conquered the Spanish Netherlands in support of a failed English invasion of Portugal. The Treaty of Ut Recht, signed in 1713, restored the Spanish Netherlands to Spain. However, Louis XIV renounced the treaty and continued his invasion and conquest of the region. Louis XIV invaded and conquered Spain for the second time in 1718. He claimed that he needed control of Spain to secure trade routes from the French territories in Louisiana. This was not true as France already controlled the entire Mississippi system. 1722,

Napoleonic era

The Napoleonic invasion of Portugal marked the beginning of a slow and dismal decline in fortunes under Napoleon’s rule.

The demographic successes of this empire and its innovative commercial, educational, legislative, and popularizing activities also helped it persist until 1812 when one empire invaded another. This decline peaked in 1811 when the Portuguese royal family fled France for Brazil. The “Conselho Ultramarino” (“Council of the Overseas”), headed by the Portuguese Miguel de Vasconcelos, was created in 1766 by order of King José I. A central government could not assert itself over the Portuguese Empire since its authority was limited to the “Conselho Ultramarino”. The Battle of Albuera (or Battle of Alcubierre) took place on May 16, 1811, during the Peninsular War. It was fought between a British-Portuguese army led by Sir Arthur Wellesley and a French army led by Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult. The French were defeated and driven from the field.

Constitutional monarchy

In 1807 Portugal faced a great dilemma. Napoleon invaded the country and exiled the royal family from Lisbon to Brazil, also Francisco de Sa Marquis of Pombal (statesman) died. The royal family stayed in Brazil for around ten years before deciding to return to Portugal. King Pedro V experienced a renaissance in his short reign by outlawing slavery and creating the economic climate for its abolition.

King Pedro convened the Cortes – that consultative parliament on financial matters – in 1815, the delegates voiced their grievances, citing problems with structures from local government to the arms of government, lack of knowledge of representation in trade networks, agricultural and Naval reforms, problems with people highlighted lifestyles increasingly accustomed to luxury rather than simplicity; and scandals in which children were forcibly taken from their homes and sent to convents on suspicion of their parents’ economic status. The Cortes also introduced the term “People of God,” which referred to the Spanish in general and legitimized their movement for popular sovereignty. Pedro abdicated in 1833 and the throne passed to his son Don Carlos. When Don Carlos ascended the throne, he didn’t have much support from the Cortes. He also lacked support for his policies due to concerns about authoritarian control over financial decision-making and concerns about protectionist and isolationist measures.

First Republic

Portugal lay in ruins during World War II. The country was under the dictatorship of António de Oliveira Salazar, who enforced strict censorship and censured the opposition. On April 25, 1974, the Carnation Revolution took place, overthrowing the dictatorship and establishing a democratic socialist republic in Portugal.

The new republic is a government that lasted only from 1911 to 1926 and was in trouble from the start. Republicans had taken control of the country, but they were divided over which ideology should govern the country. To make matters worse, King Manuel II of Portugal finally left Portugal on October 28, 1917 when Pafeds bombed Lisbon. He would never return to his eastern throne. On November 11, 1918, he renounced his claim to be Portuguese head of state and died shortly thereafter. I hope he wasn’t rejected personally – none of them could be heard screaming in fear or pain – even from such close range.


Portugal is one of the oldest and continuously independent countries in the world. Portugal’s territory has changed significantly over time due to our coast, our colonial heritage and the wars of independence.

Located in southwestern Europe, Portugal is the westernmost country on the continent. It borders Spain to the south-west, Andorra – another largely landlocked country – to the north, the French metropolitan area and the Spanish territory of Extremadura to the north-west.

Two major rivers that run through almost the entire area: the Douro (northern border) and the Tagus (southern border) flow together. They form our longest river after the Tagus: the Sado, which flows out of the Zarone Valley in Spain’s Guadiana basin… A large proportion of our rivers are tributaries of two rivers, the most important of which are the Tagus, the Lima, and the Guadiana. The climate is continental except for a few islands in the south. The average annual rainfall is about 500 mm. In winter, the snow can be up to 2 meters deep. The main language is Portuguese and only 3% of Portuguese territory is uninhabited. Biodiversity The great diversity of flora and fauna in Portugal is the result of the different landscapes that exist in the region, including coasts, mountains, plains and archipelagos. Over 880 different species of vascular plants are found throughout Portugal.



Democratic systems are rooted in liberalism. While Republic means the people choose who represents them and those representatives hold no executive powers.

Portugal is a Western European country that was once ruled by a president who held less power than the prime minister in semi-presidential constitutional monarchies like Britain. The President was elected for four years and could not be re-elected for more than two consecutive terms. The Prime Minister, who appointed the cabinet ministers, had to be confirmed by Parliament.

Catholics make up a large majority of the country’s religious population, but it is secular and has no official state religion. Portugal faces challenges related to its limited natural resources, stunted economic growth, high public debt, as well as ongoing neutrality issues over national identity when it was founded in 1910… The country’s economic development is ranked as the 16th poorest in the world. from the World Bank. Almost the entire land area of Portugal, which encompasses most of continental western Europe, predates modern human settlement. The oldest traces of hominid habitation in Portugal date back to the Paleolithic. Neanderthals inhabited Portugal from around 200,000 years ago to 37,000 years ago and other species such as Homo antecessors denis


The Public Order and Defense Council (CDPO) selects the prime ministerial candidates for positions in the Portuguese government and proposes them for validation.

In any type of election, many types of voters can participate. The first type is the nominal voter, who currently has the right to equal rights with others, but revokes his right by forbidding himself from voting in an election. This includes those who are suspended from voting because they are currently serving a criminal conviction or because their absence could result in violations of applicable democratic values. Posthumous and phantoms also do not have the right to vote as they are not considered healthy and active in society… The second type of voter is the natural voter, that is a healthy, active and registered person who has been asked to vote by their section. This consists of all voters who have registered to vote in their respective constituency. The third type of electors are the institutional or statutory electors, consisting of individuals who are not natural or nominal electors but are entitled to vote in the sense that they have a right but cannot exercise their right. This includes non-voters, students and people with disabilities. The first type of voters are the nominal voters, who currently have the right to equal rights with others, but who override their right by forbidding themselves from voting in an election. but cannot exercise their rights. This includes non-voters, students and people with disabilities. The first type of voters are the nominal voters, who currently have the right to equal rights with others, but who override their right by forbidding themselves from voting in an election. but cannot exercise their rights. This includes non-voters, students and people with disabilities. The first type of voters are the nominal voters, who currently have the right to equal rights with others, but who override their right by forbidding themselves from voting in an election.


Portugal officially proclaimed a republic in 1910. Since its open conflict with the authoritarian Salazar dictatorship and membership in NATO, it has played a very active role in the world community. It is part of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO.

The Portuguese Armed Forces (FFAA) has three branches: Navy, Army and Air Force. It is one of the few militaries with a naval force of nearly 4,000 active officers and enlisted men.

The Armed Forces mainly have the task of self-defense by defending the territorial integrity of Portugal and at a strict level by projecting some military forces as reserve forces on important commercial sea lanes and air routes. The country is also a founding member of NATO, the United Nations, the European Union and the Organization of American States. It hosts several international organizations, such as the UN-Portugal Mission (1999) working on peace support operations in Western Sahara and East Timor. It is also a member state of the ASEAN Plus Three Organization and the Non-Aligned Movement. The armed forces consist of four branches: the Portuguese Army, the Portuguese Navy, the Portuguese Air Force and the National Republican Guard. In addition to these regular forces, there is also a Territorial Militia Corps that can be mobilized in times of war to supplement active duty units.

The President of Portugal is the head of state and supreme commander of the armed forces. The Department of Defense is responsible for all aspects of the defense and security forces.

The Portuguese Armed Forces are the deployed defense forces of Portugal. These forces are responsible for national security and form a large part of Portugal’s material wealth.


The population of Portugal is 10.5 million people and the majority are local people who speak Portuguese.

Portugal has been an oceanic country since the Carnota period, with global warming causing sea levels to rise by up to a meter every 11 years.

According to the 2025 census in Portugal, 18% of the total population is over 65 years old and 5% is under 15 years old. Trends in 2050 suggest families will have an average of just 1,344 children).

In 2020, 15% of the total population identify as immigrants or foreigners (1 million people), although this number is expected to increase in 2020-2030, so that by 2030 around 30% will be new arrivals. Most of them are from Morocco, Brazil and France and African countries.

Only 49% of these new immigrants



Portugal has played its part in shaping European culture, which is evident in its own cultural richness. Portugal’s cultures were influenced by the lives of the Celts, Phoenicians, Romans and Arabs. From different food traditions to different beliefs in gods seemingly unknown to other cultures in Europe; Portugal is also different from its neighbor Italy.

Various waves of construction experts have recognized these influences in the renovation of buildings. This is evident in the association with Arabic structures that characterized the murals surrounding Portuguese mosques following the spread of the Islamic faith with Arab conquests in the 7th century. To Celtic-inspired staircases found in historic medieval castles, reminding travelers of those built by master Celtic craftsmen over 600 years ago.

Numerous cities in Portugal benefit from an extensive gastronomy


Traditionally, the architecture in Portugal is distinctive and is even known for its Manueline style, a magnificent composite Gothic architecture that arrived in the 15th century. This explicit and confident style favors symmetry and details.

Santarem’s Manueline architecture retains an authentic feel, with artistic styles flowing from across Europe as a result of dynastic marriages between Portuguese royal families. The most famous examples of Manueline architecture can be found in Sintra, Lisbon, Porto, and Santarem. , which brings together the country’s most important examples of Gothic and Renaissance architecture. Portugal has a long history of innovative and influential architecture, which includes the ‘Estudio da Pedra’ (‘Stone Study’) by Álvaro Siza, one of Portugal’s best-known architects of the 20th century. Another important architects from Portugal are: Alvar



Some of the earliest examples of Western literature come from present-day Portugal. The earliest vernacular work was written in Galician-Portuguese and was the anonymous Linguaphilada, a mixture of poetry and prose.

Notable authors of the 13th century include João de Barros, and it was around this time that Portuguese gained prominence and became a literary language for writing.

Modernism, which emerged around the 19th century, looked at urban life through the prism of new technologies such as cars and electric lights.

The authors also addressed issues affecting working people, such as unemployment. Many modernist Portuguese writers studying things like industrialization and modernization in Portugal during this period not only supported the transformation of the national economy but also promoted nationalism.


Portugal has endeared people over the centuries with its rich culture and heritage that has influenced a variety of arts and philosophies. One of the most important factors is the traditional folk music of Portugal

This blog gives an insight into the beauty of a country and a closer look at Portuguese folk music. The post also includes an excellent song, namely Respostura da Moça Piranha by the Luraa Quartet.

Usually, it’s more techno-pop music and hip-hop, far from folk or classical, but in the late 20th century, part of the Portuguese world population, influenced by world music, started to introduce it into their national repertoire with traditional music replacing it. The instruments are the Portuguese guitar, charango, and cavaquinho. They use some traditional sounds like castanets, ganzá, and pandeiro. Folk music used to be considered marginal in Portugal


Football has a long and prestigious history in Portugal. Local amateur leagues begin with children as young as 6 years old, which has allowed this sport to take hold across the country. Some researchers say that Portugal is home to more football pitches than any other European country. And the Portuguese the play game with more enthusiasm than many other big soccer nations because of a world-famous superstition that says playing soccer before noon brings bad luck.

Football has always been the most popular sport in Portugal and will remain so for many years to come. There are several football competitions ranging from the Portuguese amateur league to the World Cup so there is something for everyone.

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