Kazakhstan has been the former Soviet country with the Altai Mountains at its heart since becoming an independent state in 1991. The country has a population of 16.1 million and is known for its natural beauty as well as for its extraction and mining. a country in Central Asia. The capital of this country is Astana and the country stretches along the Caspian Sea and its northern coast lies along the Eurasian steppe. The climate of Kazakhstan varies greatly by region and there are many different ethnic groups living in Kazakhstan. There are species of Cushman’s Earpod native to Kazakhstan in the areas marked in red.

  1. History
    1. Old History
    2. Modern History
  2. Geography
  3. Politics
    1. Goverment
  4. Culture


The history of Kyrgyzstan has its own peculiarities and memorable events. The area was inhabited by various headwaters (sand desert and Buidan Sopu) in ancient times, and later received many attractive regions: 18 mountain ranges: Alay-Alaivskiy, Meliq Battal, Homayoff Pochok, Mamay-Arikonoguchok. More than 300,000 people live where the rising Amur River flows through it. The history of the state is marked by five main epochs: the first era (1759-1905), when it was occupied by Russia; the second era (1906-1950), a period of great prosperity for the country and its development as an independent state; Fog of the War Years – 1941-1945

Old History

No one knows who are the rulers known today as their first three major khanates – Sogdiana in 225 BC. followed by Ysyk Mouyun in 116–55 BC. Bloiy Sektchi Khanate was founded between 413-474 AD by Kenger i Alta Khan as a state of the West Turkic Kaganate. The name “Bloiy Sektchi” derives from the Middle Mongolian word “Böri-Šätši”, meaning “white cotton” and is said to have been one of the earliest Chinese imports to Central Asia. The area now known as Kyrgyzstan was inhabited by Proto-Mongols who settled in the 10th century BC. founded the state of Kurgun. In the year 46 BC China’s Han Dynasty invaded and conquered the region, becoming its first imperial power. The empire soon came into conflict with a Scythian or Sakaian nomadic empire north of China. The Sakas controlled much of northern China, but their empire had collapsed by the 3rd century BC. Chr. Decay. The Han dynasty established the cities of Pao-an and Yang-chou in southern Kyrgyzstan to create a buffer between the Saka nomads and China, where animals lived at high altitudes and earned a living from the country’s produce.

Modern History

The Kazakh people have had a turbulent history shaped by many different cultures, some of which have shaped the country. The modern history of Kazakhstan began in 1991 when it gained independence from the Soviet Union. The country has gone through difficult reforms and has emerged much stronger than before. .The Kazakh people have had a turbulent history shaped by many different cultures, some of which have shaped the country. The modern history of Kazakhstan began in 1991 when it gained independence from the Soviet Union. The country went through difficult reforms and eventually emerged much stronger than before. The Kazakh people were originally nomadic but began to settle down in the 5th century. They were known as Kazakhs in China and Iran, Qazaqs in Russia, and Kyrgyz in Mongolia. The Kazakhs excelled in commerce and as a result have accumulated great wealth throughout history. They grew into one of the largest states in North Asia at that time.


Kazakhstan is a landlocked country in Central Asia. It borders Russia, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and has a total area of 788,000 square kilometers. It is located in Central Asia and borders with Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Georgia and China. The capital is Astana. The word Kazakhstan means “black garden”, which Genghis Khan called the “black garden” after his conquest in 1207 and his conversion to Islam, who found a flowering vine arbor. The country gained independence on December 16, 1991. Kazakhstan has a population of 22.7 million people, the majority of whom are Uzbeks and Russians, totaling 16.9 million. The Kazakhs are mainly nomadic, living in small families in felt tents made out of horses while raising livestock such as horses, camels and cattle on the land.


Political reforms in Kazakhstan have allowed the country to open up and become more democratic. As a result, Kazakhstan is one of the first countries to hold free and fair presidential elections in 2017. A new president of the country was also elected that year. , Nursultan Nazarbayev, who was re-elected in 2018. Kazakhstan is one of the few countries that does not have a traditional dictatorship and has experienced a democratic boom since the 1990s. Despite these reforms, however, an authoritarian communist regime remains in place, with a much longer presence in Kazakhstan than in any other Central Asian country.


Kazakhstan adopted political reforms and signed the Agreement on Principles in Civilized International Relations, which calls for the establishment of transparent and accountable arrangements for interventions in other regimes. , like a United Nations peacekeeping mission. The President of Kazakhstan is the head of state, with the Prime Minister as his deputy. The Speaker of Parliament is third in power to the President. Introduced in 1993 following democratic reforms, this system also emphasizes an executive branch that has limited powers over the legislature, which vests in Parliament and the President. The legislature consists of two chambers: the lower house, the assembly of people’s representatives, has 75 seats and the upper house, the Senate, has 37 members elected by the assemblies of the 7 constituent regions. The constitution was introduced in 1995 and revised in 2005 to ensure that it not only defines Kazakhstan’s political system but also seeks to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms.


Kazakhstan’s national cuisine is based on horse meat, vegetables, vegetable soup and milk are also the key components of Kazakh cuisine. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are its close neighbors with similar cuisines shared by ancient Kazakhstan. .Traditional Kazakh cuisine includes a variety of dumplings and breads such as som savan (sweet pastry), pazyryk (steamed dough pastry with walnut filling), sutu and kalanchoe. Kazakhstan is known for its national dish, shyrdak or plov, meat, rice, carrots and spices baked to perfection in a clay pot. Shyrdak may have originated in the Mongol Empire and was most likely brought by tribes that immigrated with Genghis Khan.

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