Afghanistan is a mountainous, landlocked country in Southwest Asia with an estimated population of around 26 million. Afghanistan is home to a diverse mix of ethnic, linguistic and cultural groups.

The modern history of Afghanistan began with the 1978 coup that overthrew the 29-year rule of King Zahir Shah and established the Republic of Afghanistan. From 1979 to 1996, the Soviet Union installed five different regimes in Afghanistan, installing local communist parties through proxy militias fighting against royalist forces stationed in Kabul, Orūzīstān Province and other centers.

The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan joined the United Nations on September 20, 1980 and maintained certain ties with the Soviet Union until 1991, when President Mikhail Gorbachev severed all ties in 1992 over security concerns, amid fierce but brief fighting between the two countries and the Soviet Union withdrew its troops left Afghanistan in February 1989 when President Mikhail Gorbachev abandoned his Cold War strategy. On December 24, 1989, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution recognizing Afghanistan’s independence and condemning any attempt by a country to interfere in its affairs.

  1. History
    1. Old History
    2. Modern History
  2. Geography
  3. Politics
    1. Development of the Taliban government
    2. Foreign Relations
  4. Demographics
  5. Culture
    1. Architecture
    2. Art and Ceramics


Afghanistan was also home to many powerful empires, kingdoms, and empires that were not based in Afghanistan at all. These empires include the Greco-Bactrians, Indo-Scythians, Kushans, and Kida.

These empires represent different times when Afghanistan has played an expansive role in world history. One of the main concepts behind the conquest of these foreign powers was the desire to conquer cultural regions across the border. and expand their culture into new areas.

Old History

The ancient history of Afghanistan dates back to 2700 BC. back. the back. After a long series of changes and different empires, it finally fell within its current political borders around 200 AD..The first historical event in the history of Afghanistan was the invasion of India by Alexander the Great in 326-327 BC. In the year 260 BC By 300 BC, Ashoka invaded what is now Afghanistan and ruled it as part of his empire. This region was later occupied by a number of Kushan, Parthian, Sasanian, and Hephthalite empires at various times. The region was part of the Kingdom of Aksum in the second century but was later annexed by the Roman Empire in 1527 after being reconquered by Emperor Ferdinand I from Ethiopian Emperor Gelawdewos. The inscription on the Arch of Augustus is said to be carved in three languages: Latin, Greek, and Coptic. .In 305, the Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus ousted King Diocletian and took over the kingdom of Cappadocia, which included parts of Central Asia.


Modern History

Afghanistan has a history of long struggles that have brought the country to where it is today. However, modern Afghans have made progress in their society and identify with other ideologies – conservative-minded people tend to be Sunni, democratic-minded people tend to be Shia, and so on.

When discussing Afghanistan’s recent history, it is important to remember that the mujahideen seized control of Afghanistan in 1979 and, as extremism grew, put Afghanistan at risk of falling into chaos. This created a harsh responsibility for ordinary Afghans, especially those living in cities. These ordinary Afghans bear the brunt of the government’s years of missteps in a new violent theater throughout most of the 20th century.

Since 1979, the list of Afghan factions ended with figures of different regional and ideological origins, there was no way to create institutions that would counteract the effects of political and social fragmentation. The influence of the dominant Pashtun tribes, especially in the south and east, was so great that it was simply impossible to counter it, whether through a federal system or through more effective communication with these tribes. The two-year attempt to solve this problem institutionally failed because neither the government nor the opposition wanted it


Afghanistan is one of the most complex societies in existence and this essay will discuss why. Afghanistan has been through countless cultures and civilizations that have left their imprint on it, also it has had ancient geographical features such as mountains and a valley that some scientists speculate to be from an asteroid impact

Afghanistan is a mountainous country, with some 15,000 volcanoes mainly concentrated in the south. Known for its geographical diversity and daunting mountain ranges, the country offers more than 300 types of terrains.

Afghanistan is often called “the forgotten war” because it was overshadowed in recent years by other campaigns fighting terrorism and extremism across the world. The war rarely gets much attention from people living outside Afghanistan’s borders but it changed the face of a region that had become a dangerous hub for drug traffickers trying to muscle their way into what are now Iran’s oil reserves and a key route for insurgents.Now, the American military, which has been focusing on Iraq and Syria, has shifted its attention back to Afghanistan and is trying to increase security in the country until some of its combat troops can be withdrawn and replaced with support forces such as air power.”The war against terrorism is not over,” President Trump said last month. “We will not rest or relent until we bring our warriors,


After the longstanding weak political agreement between the government and the Taliban in 2016, major turmoil followed with the 2017-2018 Afghan war and later in the run-up to the long-running September 2019 elections.

After the actual collapse of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan during almost nine years of the Taliban offensive, an interlocutor between the interest groups affected by these new developments published results that were stabilized by a digital stabilization program. The project focuses on influencing political stability and consciousness through social media with a variety of approaches to re-establishing Afghanistan’s historical identity.

Development of the Taliban government

The Taliban, the militant religious movement active from 1996 to 2001, ruled Afghanistan from 1997 to 2001 and 2002 to 2012. The United States attempted to invade Afghanistan based on intelligence claims by various terrorist groups using Afghanistan as a base.

The Taliban took control with their emotional appeal, which included the appeal of Islam promoted through words and deeds. Americans, on the other hand, recognized this and sought to counter the BJP by creating a largely messianic culture to enclose Afghans in a messianic complex that they hoped could only be broken by dividing it into two parts with a common one siding from them with pernicious American plans for them and one questioning their involvement in those plans – internalism/externality issue. The former is like a baby boomer model of externality because they were the ones who created this messianic culture and later they told the Afghans not to blindly follow these heroes, it is a trap. This complicates the internalism/externality problem. because it is not a binary opposition, but a multidimensional one.

Foreign Relations

Afghanistan is located in South Asia on the border between Iran, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. It shares a 464-mile border with Pakistan. Afghanistan has a population of more than 31 million.
There are two political rivals in the Afghan government: Karzai’s government of national unity and the Afghan Taliban government. The government of national unity is recognized as a legal government by most countries in the world, while it is trusted by only 30% of the public. . The Afghan Taliban government is recognized only by Pakistan. Pashtuns make up about 44% of the Afghan population, Tajiks 31%, Hazaras 7%, Uzbeks 4%, Turkmens 2%, and others (including Baloch and Pashai) 11%. The main language in Afghanistan is Dari. Kabuli Pashto is the second most spoken language in the country and is spoken as a mother tongue or lingua by approximately 27% of the population


Afghanistan has a rich historical background, having been invaded countless times during its centuries-old history. Therefore, except for roads, its infrastructure has rarely undergone modern development.

However, due to continued military setbacks, foreign aid and external support are becoming increasingly important to develop Afghanistan’s infrastructure quickly and efficiently

Afghanistan’s economic growth requires infrastructure investments that even it cannot fund overnight. Because of war-ravaged rural areas and a lack of replacement capital after decades of war-weariness, Afghans still have limited access to essential amenities like clean water. , electricity and roads. The US Department of Defense has not provided a timeline for restoring services in Afghanistan, but Afghan President Ashraf Ghani has pledged to set up a fund that will provide loans to refurbish infrastructure. He also announced plans for an $800 billion sovereign wealth fund from the country’s undeveloped mineral reserves to help rebuild. Due to a lack of infrastructure, Afghanistan’s economy is dependent on imports. The country is currently running a trade deficit of $3 billion a year due to a lack of electricity and other necessities. The US military has not provided a timeline for restoring services in Afghanistan, but Afghan President Ashraf Ghani has pledged to set up a fund that will provide loans to refurbish infrastructure. He also announced plans for an $800 billion sovereign wealth fund from the country’s undeveloped mineral reserves to help rebuild. The US military has not provided a timeline for restoring services in Afghanistan, but Afghan President Ashraf Ghani has pledged to set up a fund that will provide loans to refurbish infrastructure. He also announced plans for an $800 billion sovereign wealth fund from the country’s undeveloped mineral reserves to help rebuild. The US military has not provided a timeline for restoring services in Afghanistan, but Afghan President Ashraf Ghani has pledged to set up a fund that will provide loans to refurbish infrastructure. He also announced plans for an $800 billion sovereign wealth fund from the country’s undeveloped mineral reserves to help rebuild.


Afghanistan is a nation that has been culturally diverse for thousands of years. Today, with the flare-up of a high-level war between the Taliban and other powers and the invasion of ISIS, their culture is fading.

Culture plays an important role in Afghanistan and this article examines how Afghanistan’s recent colonialism has ultimately damaged its culture.

Several important factors such as language and religion influenced Islam as the country tried to reintegrate after long periods of self-government while the mujahideen fought the Soviet invasion.

Naquib’s reflections on Afghan literature seem particularly interesting given Soufiani’s perspectives on writing about non-Islamic nations – Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran – where his work seems to be full of opportunities for textual analysis that differ from his more direct engagement with national literary traditions differentiate. However, this is not the case in Afghanistan, where tradition has always viewed the written word as something to be closely guarded and privileged. As a result, Afghanistan, although home to some of the most important modern writers, lags behind many other countries in terms of literature and literary education.


There are several UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Afghanistan, such as Ghor – Takht-e-Suleiman, Bamiyan, and others.
Buildings in a number of cities from different eras are also part of the culture. It includes castles built during the Sassanid dynasty or mosques built in ancient times and the Middle Ages. The main idea for its basic structure is optimization for defensive purposes. However, history shows how many cultures had imported handicrafts there as well. An example is a photography, which was not introduced to Afghanistan until the 1840s by Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Zenkert (the earliest photographer of Afghanistan) and others. Afghanistan has a long history of cultural and trade exchanges with neighboring countries, including China and India. Afghanistan’s art, architecture and culture have been enriched by these interactions as well as by its own indigenous traditions. Afghanistan is also a historical center of Islamic learning, established in the 7th century. It is known that many prominent Islamic figures in the world studied, taught and/or died in Afghanistan.

Art and Ceramics

The art of Afghan ceramics spans two periods, the pre-Seljuk period of Nur Ali and Ahmed Nehru, and the late 19th to mid-20th centuries. Soldering techniques were introduced in the late 17th century.
One of the most popular materials used in ceramic production is erythritol, or other, a substance commonly found as bright red crystals or ribbons in sulfide ore deposits. Pre-Seljuk period: late 17th century to mid-18th century This period is mainly characterized by a variety of shapes and sizes and geometric patterns with some naturalistic motifs. The decoration consists mainly of white or yellow glaze with blue and green accents. The characteristic motifs are flowers, arabesques, floral patterns, and geometric shapes. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia was the first to introduce higher quality mass-produced pottery, which remains popular today. This guild method is characterized by a variety of forms and styles,

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