Brunei is a small country in Southeast Asia and is a mixture of oil coat and different cultures from China, India, Arabia, Africa. They have been ruled by their sultan since the 16th century. It is the only empire in Southeast Asia. The people of Brunei are mainly Malays, Chinese and Indians. It is considered a tourist destination in Southeast Asia. Tourist attractions include Brunei Grand Mosque, Serasa Beach, Brunei National Museum, etc.

Brahim Haji Muhammad was Brunei’s second head of state, elected after the promulgation of Brunei’s first constitution in 1959.

  1. History
    1. Old History
    2. Modern History
  2. Geography
  3. Politics
    1. Development of the Taliban government
    2. Foreign Relations
  4. Demographics
  5. Culture


Brunei is located in the north of the island of Borneo. From the year 1513 it was settled by His Majesty Sultan Omar, who decided to be independent from the rule of cooperation of European countries and to put more emphasis on Islam.

Origin: Brunei, originally called Labuan, was founded as a trading port in the 15th century by one of the admiral ships of the Chinese state Zheng He under Admiral Zheng He. Brunei’s independence was agreed 270 years later in 1777, when its weak military prowess and vulnerability to major rebellions made it “an easy deal for the sultan”.

The rise of a British-led regional power can also be attributed to Brunei’s 16th Prince Muzaffar Syah, who crossed the Straits of Malacca in 1800. This move was a way for the sultanate to preserve its independence from foreign powers and its own control over the oil industry.

Old History

Brunei’s indigenous people are called “Awang” or “Aku” and are descendants of the permanent Malay communities who settled in Malaysian Borneo before or around the Dusun period in 1022. Like other indigenous groups, including the Mon-Khmer Bryersons, Pandanan-Mandarin, and Kadazan-Murut, the Awangs developed a distinct identity from those of other groups due to a long coastline with multiple seas between networks of communicating waterways. In AD 526, the Islamic Sultan arrived in front of Tanjung Putting on Pulau Morotai for the first time.

According to the Brunei Department of Museums and Monuments, all of the evidence is recorded in the Bruneian Museum. According to a Bruneian folk tale, legends tell us “here in Sabah there was a girl known locally as Malanau (old Malana)”. It seems that Malanau has taken over her tumbulok, which means high exalted in Sanskrit, meaning a title of sorts. In December 2014

Modern History

The Havening people were among the last people in Southeast Asia to convert to Islam. They settled on the island of Borneo, now known as Brunei. The kingdom was founded by Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III in 1887 and has been ruled by his descendants ever since.

Sharia was imposed by Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah in 1773, but because his attempt at conversion to Islam only led to rebellions and revolts over time, he eventually adopted an open approval, which was great from 1822 to 1950, and discouraged the politics of his father’s as it may have led to an increase in local corruption. .The Sharia was imposed in 1962 by Saudi Arabia’s King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud.

The country experienced prosperity under his regime, which embraced aggressive development toward commodity trade and foreign investment, resulting in an average annual per capita income of US$15,300 in 2012, although its infrastructure was relatively underdeveloped. During his presidency, more than 80% of the country’s GDP was generated by foreign investment. From 2008 to 2012, bilateral trade between Nigeria and China increased from US$3.6 billion to US$21.8 billion.


Brunei is a two-island country mainly located on the northwest coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Another name for this country is the Bruneian Empire, which has since turned into a representative monarchy.

Brunei is relatively small at just 11 square kilometers as the smallest land area. From more than 100,000 people at the height of Brunei’s power to fewer than 40,000 today, this emirate is home to just 463,000 people. The indigenous population includes Malays, Chinese and Indians. They mainly speak Malay and several Indian dialects like Tamil and Gujarati on their Malay language at home, while in Malaysia they speak all languages like Malay and English.


Barring a change of power, the current 45th Sultan of Brunei, Saiful Rijal, is expected to be the country’s last ruler. The Sultan sets far-reaching policies, including some censorship and social policies.

The 45th Sultan of Brunei, Saiful Rijal, is expected to be the country’s last ruler. The Sultan issues far-reaching policies, including some censorship and social media restrictions.

Brunei is based on the laws of Malay Islamic law, which many people find conservative and restrictive. Women have few rights & liberties which has been a major criticism from around the world and boycotts, protests & demonstrations. Sheikh Zainal Abidin Ahmad of the Islamic Development Department has stated that state laws should not be confused with Sharia. The state’s legal system is independent of Sharia: “The Penal Code is based on the Penal Code of the Syariah, which is a penal code and has nothing to do with Sharia.”


Brunei’s government has been in existence for many years, but only recently has the governing body attempted to meet evolving needs. The failure of developed strategies resulted in a new focus in different areas such as cybersecurity and education.

“1510-1836: Brunei began ruling several Malay states on behalf of the sultanate, including Selangor, Pahang, and Perak. SultanATEhmane Alam Shah led attacks with other Muslim Malay Sultans in a defensive alliance against the East India Company of British Empire from 1622.”

Unlike most small countries around the world with long periods without a constitution, Brunei’s history soon became remarkable due to the 1984 constitutional decree. Compared to their neighboring countries like Malaysia or Indonesia; The constitutional decree introduced in the same chapter separation between state and religion and the separation of executive and legislative. Brunei’s declaration as an Islamic State under the Sultanate of Brunei in 1738 also passed into this constitution, in which the country became a non-hereditary monarchy and a parliament led by the prime minister. After gaining independence from British rule in 1984, Brunei instituted its “constitutional order”. The constitutional order separated state and religion and legitimized the Muslim population with a halal constitution

Foreign Relations

But since the 2004 Asian tsunami claimed many lives across Brunei’s borders – its neighbors Malaysia and Singapore – Indonesia-Brunei and Malaysian relations have gradually deteriorated. Indeed, during this period, Brunei became an independent Islamic state on October 3, 1984. The transition to a constitutional monarchy resulted in a conservative society that imposed strict regulations on all facets of life, including the economy, which was based on Sharia law. Indonesia and Brunei originally belonged to the same sultanate until they went their separate ways due to foreign influences in the early 19th century. Attempts have been blocked by some outside agencies to defuse tensions with Indonesia. In 1998, however, after the election of a new government in 1986 with ambitions aimed at opening up Brunei’s economy while the foreign policy was overhauled, this only fueled further tensions between the two countries until a peace deal was struck in 2003


One of the three largest races in Brunei are the Aborigines. Also known as Aborigines or Native Americans, they make up around 8-12% of Brunei’s total population. No census has been taken since 2010, so there is no way of knowing exactly how many natives there are. , but estimates range from 35,000 to 50,000. The indigenous people of Brunei are called Bisaya. The Bisaya speak a young form of the Malay language and are divided into six groups or tribes. They are: Belait, Tutong-Temburong, Brunei-Muara, Temburong River-Belalong Bay, Bisitungan. Brunei is the youngest country in Southeast Asia. In 2015, the total population was 404,000 with a median age of 24 years. Over 50% of the population is under 20 years old and almost 30% is under 15 years old.


Brunei culture is heavily influenced by Malay culture and Indian culture. The British brought their influence to the country for its colonial government.

Bruneian culture can be described as a mixture of Hindu and Buddhist traditions. Prayer etiquette is a hybrid of the two religions, originating from Malaysia and Asia respectively. The culture is significantly influenced by these two religious groups as well as by Islam. .Prayer etiquette in Brunei is an interaction that involves bowing the head, prostrating, and wiping the face on the sleeve or hand before entering a mosque. It is important to dress modestly when praying. Women are required to cover their hair with a scarf, and women not wearing hijab can wear floor-length clothing so their arms are not visible. In Brunei, people known as “Khalwat” tend to be very devout religions and follow these guidelines for prayer etiquette. In the past only men were allowed to enter a mosque, but nowadays women can also enter and it is not uncommon to see them praying inside with long dresses covering their heads

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