Indonesia is officially the third most populous country in the world with over 238 million people. Ranked 7th among countries by GDP, it is widely considered to be a newly industrialized country and the 4th most densely populated country. With an agricultural sector accounting for more than a quarter of its economy and a still growing number of significant manufacturing and agricultural industries, Indonesia lags behind some big players like Vietnam, India, China and Brazil, but also ahead of countries like Canada and Australia.

The country of Indonesia is officially known as the Republic of Indonesia and has a population of more than 242.5 million. Located in Southeast Asia, it is the largest archipelago in the world with 16,533 islands, 633 by 400 kilometers long, made up of 4,824 inhabited islands.

  1. History
    1. Old History
    2. Modern History
  2. Geography
  3. Politics
    1. Government
    2. Foreign Relations
  4. Demographics
  5. Culture
    1. Customs
    2. Art


Indonesia first came to prominence as the name of an Indian prince in the 12th century. It received its current name as Indonesia in the 14th century during a period when it was being colonized by Siam, but after receiving its new name in the World War of 1942-1945, it took a long time to regain independence. The country is known for its economic prosperity and great culture and natural resources. .Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. Indonesia has the world’s largest Muslim population and is home to the world’s largest Buddhist community. It also has the third largest Christian population in the world, due to centuries of Dutch and Portuguese colonial influences on its religious diversity.

Old History

Indonesia has a long and complex history with many names and name changes. Indonesia was formerly referred to as Singapore in the 14th century before it was given its current name by the Indonesian independence movement. The name change occurred when the Dutch East Indies declared its independence from the Netherlands at the end of World War II. . In the c. 1400s, the name “Singapura” was adopted by the Indonesian independence movement to describe the nascent state of medieval Java and Sumatra. “Seng-gah-puhr” means “lion city” in Malay. Srivijaya (756–892) and later Majapahit (1122–1448) are believed to have been founded in the region that encompasses present-day Palembang. Indonesia was formerly known as the Dutch East Indies and is sometimes referred to as Nusantara. India was a Dutch colony from 1816 to 1949. After World War II, the Netherlands had agreed not to claim the area.

Modern History

In 1949, the beginning of the state armed forces under the Soeharto regime was raised as a general to counter security threats. The Dutch continued their role as the dominant foreign power, leading to bitter anti-Dutch sentiment among Indonesians. However, in the 1970–80 era, the strong reaction of the then-popular modernist movement, opposed to the overthrow of the dictatorship, gave political movements a precedence, leading to full independence from many Dutch domains in 1945. The Dutch presence in Indonesia can be felt throughout the country. For example, Indonesia’s first President Sukarno introduced the concept of pancasila, an Indonesian state philosophy that promoted a monotheism heavily influenced by Islam. The main religion of Indonesia is Sunni Islam, followed by Protestantism and Catholicism. Although Dutch influence is significant, Indonesian culture developed independently of the Dutch. Indonesia has been known for its myriad ethnic groups since the expansion of Southeast Asia and India in early human history. These ethnic groups were a source of conflict between different groups struggling to maintain their own cultural identity or independence. Additionally, Islam was introduced to Indonesia during colonialism, resulting in a split into two countries and ultimately affecting the development of Islam as a religion in Indonesia


Indonesia is a vast country with a long landmass of over 1.9 million square kilometers and spans two time zones. It has 14 provinces named Nusantara, 18 provinces, 462 districts and 614 sub-districts. The country is home to diverse cultures and the most populous Muslim population in the world. .

Indonesia is a country made up of more than 13,000 islands, mostly in the equatorial region. Indonesia is the most populous country in the world and has over 17,000 languages ​​spoken within its borders.

Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world and consists of more than 17,000 islands. It has a tropical rainforest climate with an equatorial climate consisting of high temperatures, low rainfall and poor soil, making agricultural development difficult. .The Indonesian economy is based on 6 sectors of heavy industry – power generation, mining, processing of metals and non-metals, processed food and beverages, textiles and clothing, and services. Agriculture remains the third most important sector in the country with rice as the main crop. In 2016, Indonesia’s GDP was around US$1.7 trillion, while GDP per capita was just over US$8,000.


Indonesia is a democratic country with 2.9 million people living on the island with a population of around 238 million. Diversity was one of the core characteristics, but also challenges of Indonesia’s recent political history. .Indonesia, the world’s most populous Muslim-majority nation, has made significant strides in recent years on issues such as gay rights and women’s empowerment. .Since the fall of Suharto and the transition to democracy in 1998, Indonesia has seen a shift in identity towards greater openness. There is also a growing confidence among Indonesians that they have their own language and culture, as well as their own stories and perspectives on Indonesian history.

After his election victory, Indonesian citizens question the legitimacy of their new president. Many have begun to question the legitimacy of this victory, as it did not win the election through the traditional democratic process. There is also a body of evidence to suggest he must have had outside support to win the election.


The Indonesian government is structured according to the 1945 Constitution, which is the supreme law of Indonesia. The government consists of three branches: Executive (Cabinet), Legislative (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat) and Judicial/Constitutional (Mahkamah Konstitusi). The president, who also serves as head of state, is the head of government and head of state. The President appoints a Vice President, who is then sworn in as Acting President if the President is unable to perform his duties. After a period of vacancy, that person becomes the new President.

Indonesia’s political party system is dominated by three major factions: Golkar, PDI-P (Democratic Party of Indonesia – People’s Democratic Party) and PKS (National Awakening Party). Golkar, the United Development Party, is a member of the Barisan Nasional coalition. The election results for Indonesia’s legislature for the 2014 general election are as follows: The Indonesian Senate has a total of 132 members, of which one-third are elected by the provincial parliaments and two-thirds by popular vote. The President appoints one-third of these members for a six-year term, while the other two-thirds are nominated by the political parties.

Foreign Relations

Indonesia is considered a regional powerhouse for tourism and commodity exports in Southeast Asia. In recent years, Indonesia has experienced internal and external political turmoil with varying degrees of economic instability. The country does not have a stable track record with all the countries it is associated with, but it is one of the fastest growing economies in Southeast Asia. .In the past three centuries, Indonesia has achieved impressive growth and transition to a middle-income country. From a nation of poverty, Indonesia is now recognized as one of the most socially and economically dynamic countries in the world. Growth in Indonesia was fueled by a strong industrial base, an improved education system, and a huge population. The infographic below shows the main economic sectors in Indonesia

The deep entanglement between these three states was indicated when Jailandco King Bhumibol Adulyadej, who died in 2016, showed Japan an inclination to reach Thailand after his death since the loss. Just days before his death, he spoke out for peace. Security has become an increasing debate as Thailand deteriorated and effectively contributed to the Thai-Malays


Indonesia is a country with a mix of diverse cultures, ethnicity, and language. The population consists mainly of indigenous ethnic groups, while the rest are migrants from South Asia and the Middle East to Indonesia.

As of January 2016, Indonesia has a population of 255 million. The vast majority of them are Muslims by religion. Most Indonesians speak either Indonesian or Dutch well enough to be understood. Indonesian and English speakers each account for 9 percent of the remaining 3 percent of the nation’s population in primary school enrollments in 2013. Although Indonesians speak three languages ​​other than Indonesian at various levels (9% with reasonable fluency), none of these languages ​​are native to Indonesia. Indonesia can boast of a significant language group like this one – Sundanese – which despite later migrations remain as the third most spoken language in the Indian Ocean became


Indonesian culture shapes the nation’s identity in many ways. It is a rich and vibrant civilization steeped in diverse beliefs, traditions and customs. . There is a wide range of cultures in Indonesia – indigenous, Chinese, Indian, Japanese and so on. The Indonesian population is predominantly Muslim with traditional belief systems that vary by location. Islam is the dominant religion of Indonesia,

Indonesian culture is valuable all over the world. This image of Indonesia can be defined in different ways: as an island nation, as a Muslim-majority country, as an agrarian society, or as a state falling from communism.


Cultural customs vary in oddities that most people wouldn’t even think of at first glance. It just means that there are many different things to learn when it comes to the Indonesian culture. There are services that have proven useful for anyone wanting to delve deeper into Indonesian cultures, such as B. the work of Mantri-Pendo Menjelang Puasa, who offers advice and support to those who are fasting during Ramadan or other holy events and wish to seek spiritual renewal.

Indonesia is a country of diversity with many cultural influences from its neighbors. The country has a rich history that is reflected in the customs of the region. Jakarta, for example, is considered more westernized but still influenced by its old traditions. The country’s most important export goods are textiles, spices and rubber.

Indonissa is influenced by the ancient traditions of Indonesian culture. From ‘Tirukoya’ (a towering white temple dedicated to Lord Shiva in Bali) to ‘wayang’ performances (mysterious enactments of magical tales from royal courts), important events in Indonesian life require a great deal of craftsmanship, celebration and sacrifice, to appease them the gods


Indonesia is one of the most colorful countries in the world. The East and Southeast Asian country celebrate around 40,000 cultural events each year on a variety of colorful themes, from poetry readings to art performances. In 2015, the country announced its goal of becoming one of the largest art cities in the world by 2020.

Art can play a variety of roles in a person’s life. Performances have a deep symbolic meaning for Indonesians and the performance reflects their customs, language, traditions and religion. Indonesian art is seen by many as the interface between society’s values and the past; where arts festivals often take place alongside annual celebrations such as Buku Day (the country’s largest festival), “Gelap Merah” (Indonesian Independence Day) or Runcuana Bangkik (Navy Day).

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