Turkey is a northeastern country in Europe with one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. Turkey is a democratic and secular country that is traditionally based on Western structures. It has a county population of 80 million people, making it the 17th largest country in the world. The predominant spoken language is Turkish. The capital Ankara has over 5 million inhabitants.

The eastern and south-eastern coasts reach the edge of the Asian parts of Turkey, bordering Iran, Georgia and Armenia to the north and Iraq to the south-east. The round outer coasts meet Greece and Bulgaria on the Thracian coast. Over 10 million people live in the largest city of Istanbul, which is 20% of the total Turkish population.

  1. History
    1. Early Christian and Roman Period
    2. Byzantine period
    3. Seljuks and the Ottoman Empire
    4. Turkish Republic
  2. Politics
    1. Election
    2. Foreign Relations
    3. Military
  3. Geography
  4. Culture
    1. Literature
    2. visual arts
    3. Architecture
    4. Sports


Turkey lies roughly in the northwest corner of Asia Minor, with the Black Sea and the eastern Mediterranean to the east. Turkey borders Bulgaria, Northern Cyprus, Greece, Syria and Iraq (as well as Iran and Saudi Arabia across a narrow strait). Historically, Turkey was a territory of the Roman Empire between 330 and 395 AD after Rome overthrew the former capital, Bithynia. Today Turkey consists of 29 provinces with 79 municipalities.

Some authors suggest that since these stories are mere legends with no evidence to corroborate them, it is not possible to take the story as an accurate account of what happened. Others suggest that these legends somehow change over time due to selective memory or change, and that it is easier to use empirical data than legends

Early Christian and Roman Period

The early Christian and Roman periods represent different cultural and political periods in the ancient Near East. The deadlines are c. AD 100 in the south, c. 500 in the east and c. 843, when Christendom made a common geographic map with Muslim Arabia to the west. This formative era of Christianity was so geographically diverse that it is difficult to speak of Christianity as a single identity due to regional differences in the Latin and Greek churches and the conflict between orthodoxy and heresy. Breaking down these regional dialects even further, one can still see dialect variations when looking at Roman Catholic Churches, Eastern Orthodox Churches, Coptic Christians or Syrian Christians – among many different variations of Christians throughout these eclectic seventh-century provinces: Palestine I through Palestine V Another look at the “Coptic Christians” who lived in Egypt, present-day Sudan and Palestine. The Romans absorbed a large amount of different cultures from their conquests, and even the cultures that resisted Roman rule were to some extent assimilated by the Romans

Byzantine period

The Byzantine Empire was originally inherited from Rome and over the centuries became an independent empire. Early Byzantium faced powerful trends such as religious heterodoxy and social class divisions. Warfare, which lasted for most of the 14th century, led to a process of decentralization after local government reforms initiated by Emperor Leo IV. For the first 500 years, Constantinople combined Greek ideas of what could be a center of civilization (large cities with a cultural focus) with Roman education in law and order.

The region steadily lost territory, particularly in the 11th century, until it became Constantinople – capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, successor state to the rest of Rome’s western territory, or at least east of what became known in Italy as “Byzantium”. The city became so important that it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire, which continued to use Rome as its capital in Italy, where it was known as “Constantinople on the Tiber”. The conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by the army of Mehmed II put an end to Byzantine rule. The Roman Empire was probably founded on October 28, 753 BC. founded. Founded.

Seljuks and the Ottoman Empire

The Seljuks were a Turkish-Islamic dynasty that founded the Seljuk Empire in the 11th and 12th centuries, stretching from Anatolia to the Indian subcontinent. The empire was a notable rival to both the Byzantine and Arab empires, which dominated much of what is now Eastern Europe.

They were drawn to the trade routes that meandered through Anatolia or present-day Turkey. They were attracted by the steady streams of customers and potential converts, as well as Muslim merchants looking to trade. Trade brought in revenue that helped fund their armies, with the new subjects of these ongoing conquests coming under their rule and being drafted into military service.

The last of the Persian Seljuks died when his son captured Edessa, his last possession, in 1074 with siege guns and Venetian explosives. Crusaders came from all sides to take Jerusalem, leading to long discussions among Christians about fighting fellow Christians or Muslims, culminating in the First Crusade, which succeeded in crossing Anatolia where Philaretus had made no progress, and at Kerbogha to defeat Antioch.

The Ottoman Empire arose out of Osman I’s leadership of the Turkish beylik of the Ottomans in northwestern Anatolia, which arose after the defeat of various Serbs and Bulgarians who settled there in the 11th century. By 1300 AD, the Ottomans – led by İbrahim Yalğız, who may also have adopted the name Orhan at this time – held power over their neighboring Turkmen clans. This consolidated Ottoman state continued to attract European hostility and Christian resentment because of its invasive attitude and correspondingly strained relations with Orthodoxy. .The Ottomans established a number of emirates on the borders of the Ottoman Empire. These were originally vassals or daughter states under Ottoman suzerainty, with some regional powers emerging and others reverting to vassals in exchange for protection from Imperial power. The Maritime Republics, especially Venice and Genoa

After the Ottoman conquest of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, the Ottoman Empire continued to be largely composed of Turkic and related peoples who adhered to traditional cultures, spoke a language with a common script, and followed a common religion.

Turkish Republic

The Republic of Turkey, formerly the Ottoman Empire, was founded in 1923 as a result of the Turkish War of Independence. From its founding in 1923 until the formal abolition of the republic and its replacement with an Islamic democracy on November 1, 1922, Turkey was known as the Republic of Turkey

The republic was established as a successor state to the Ottoman Empire, projected back onto Islamic ideology in Anatolia. Nominally a new world power after the only other vanished from the map in 1918, “Turkey” was actually the victim of centuries of intermittent wars and internal unrest between Christian states in the Ottoman Balkans. .At the beginning of the 20th century, both Armenia and Azerbaijan were part of the Russian Empire. However, due to pressure from nationalist advocates, pro-independence movements later emerged in both countries. The two states fought a war for control of Nagorno-Karabakh in 1918, with Russia siding with Armenia. Eventually, Armenian forces were driven out in 1920 and Azerbaijan soon controlled the area.

During this period (c. 1920-2007), Turks learning from Christian teachers had difficulty understanding history from a Muslim perspective


In April 1876 Turkey was declared a republic and not an empire.

In the 1950s, the new constitution enshrined some Western legal norms (like equality before the law), but the ERT”L had to subordinate its sovereignty to Nuri Demirağ’s cabinet ministers.

With all these changes in Turkey, the traditional focus on Ottoman descent is increasingly shifting during this process of modernization or revolution.” The author also describes this process of revolution or modernization as “the new constitution has enshrined part of the western legal norms.” The author tells how this process of revolution or modernization affected Turkey and what they did to shift the focus away from the Ottoman lineage.


Turks elect the president (head of state), parliament (legislature), five candidates for each of the country’s 29 provinces, district mayors, and local councils (executive).

In Turkey, elections are held for six government functions: presidential (national), parliamentary (national), five for each of the country’s 29 provinces, district mayor and city council. Parliamentary elections are divided equally among 600 constituencies, from which 550 MPs are elected sequentially by party-list proportional representation with a 10% electoral threshold. and 50% of the votes. The last 250 deputies are elected successively by a closed proportional representation list with an electoral threshold of 10% and 5% of the vote. The President is elected by an absolute majority in a two-round system for a five-year term with no possibility of immediate re-election. The Prime Minister is elected by a relative majority in a two-round system for a four-year term without the possibility of immediate re-election. Members of Parliament are elected by proportional representation from closed lists distributed in the individual constituencies using the D’Hondt method. Each district elects two deputies and has a population of no less than 100,000. The Turkish Grand National Assembly has 435 seats

Foreign Relations

Turkey’s relations with Europe are diverse. Trade differences and migration deals exist to varying degrees between Turkey and members of the European Union. Some examples are the Customs Union and Association Agreement with Turkey.

The Turkish reform process also had an important impact on Turkey’s EU accession negotiations. The process emerged in 2000 and was a manifestation of ongoing reforms in Turkey, resulting from popular approval of democratization that was perceived as being delayed. However, since Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s power has increased, relations between the two parties have deteriorated and the Turkish government has remained adamant about EU accession. A 2017 poll by KEREP showed that 48% of Turks polled still supported EU membership – up from 61% in 2013. Turkey has been a member of the European Union since 1987.


The military. Turkey’s modern armed forces stem from Russia, the great Western powers, Turkey’s geography and an ideological tradition of radical secularism.”

Turkey has an active military that also contributes to civil society. In Turkey, citizens can not only stand up for what they want, but also take up arms when their homeland is threatened. For example, in the War of Independence (1919-21), the Ottoman Empire was in serious jeopardy, with little real support and a changing ideology that could see the nation becoming part of Russia or the major Western powers. On March 6, 1881, military troops deposed the sultan, ending the decades of foreign occupation and suppression of civil liberties that led to this crushing rebellion. After years of revolt, a new government was installed under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who set up a modern and secular government. A military consists of civilians, while the Turkish armed forces are 60% civilian troops. The Turkish Armed Forces contribute to society in many ways, such as education, disaster relief, health services and economic development, making them one of the largest employers in Turkey. Aside from allowing service members to advocate for themselves, they also offer unique opportunities for those who want to learn a valuable skill that can be used anywhere in the world.


Turkey occupies an area of ​​783,180 square miles and borders the countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iraq, Iran and Syria. .Located in the south-west part of Asia and the south-east part of Europe. The capital is Ankara.

The climatic zones of Turkey is a large geographic region formed mainly by its large landmass, touching parts of three continents. Europe, Asia and Africa. .Turkey is a transcontinental country spanning two continents, Europe and Asia, with a Black Sea coast. Turkey lies at the intersection of three different major climate zones: the Middle East, the Mediterranean and Central Asia. The climate varies significantly due to differences in latitude, altitude, and proximity to water sources. The climate primarily determines how much rain the region gets, with a Mediterranean climate that is dry because it is not low enough to rain more than sporadically, a sub-polar oceanic climate that causes heavy snowfall and lots of humidity,


Turkey is unique in many ways. When it comes to cultures, this country encompasses a wide range of ethnicities and religions and is willing to absorb the cultures of other countries into its culture without destroying what it originally has. Each part of Turkey has its own way of living, studying, celebrating and commemorating history, but they all have something in common – acceptance.

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental Eurasian country. It occupies a region that lies in both Europe and Asia.

Denizli has always been culturally linked to ancient Rome. This was because the surrounding land was once fertile and fertile. With irrigation canals still visible today, they were able to grow grapes and olives, which can be seen in an old wine press up in town, which now houses Denizli Palace – one of Turkey’s 15th-century Ottoman architectural treasures . century empire.

Denizli, its historical importance and culture before introducing some local specialties of Turkish cuisine such as kebabs, pasta adaptations and rice plus for lunch and dinner.


The literatures of Güney, also called Syriac literature, is a folk literature that is mainly found in the oral area. Such texts are read in public places and at private gatherings at celebrations and religious ceremonies.

Turkish literature has a long literary history, hence Turkey can boast of having the oldest civilization in the world. As such, Turkic nations inhabited what is now modern Turkey and Asia Minor for over 30 millennia.

Islam had become a major influence on Turkish culture by the Middle Ages, with religion and sociological norms being intertwined during this period. With this new visibility of Islam, stronger nationalism developed, which in turn provided generations with unique opportunities to document themselves and their cultures within the society and nation-states in which they lived – especially to their neighbors

Visual arts

Turkey offers a variety of art offerings for different eras and regions of the country. Ancient art from ancient Anatolia, works of art from the Ottoman Empire period and Greco-Roman sculptures from Roman provinces.

In addition, due to Istanbul’s outstanding position as a world metropolis, Turkish visual arts are constantly expanding their position in the international world with numerous events. For example, Turkish pavilions at major international art events such as the Venice Biennale represent new grassroots developments in contemporary art practice and culture. Turkish fine arts offers a wide understanding as there have been numerous attempts to revitalize traditional art and use it as a tool in Western art. The artist M.Fikriye Güngör has developed her own style based on “New Anatolian painting”, which is one of the most important trends in Turkish modernism.


The diverse architecture of Turkey is reflected in different religions such as Islam and Armenian Christianity. Finally, many examples of Ottoman architecture can also be seen in the country.

According to Religion News Service (1997), Turkey’s architectural structure is influenced throughout Istanbul and Ankara due to its Ottoman Empire. In addition, the Islamic culture largely corresponds to the Istanbul climate, which is at best 120 years old. Features such as domed roofs and banquet halls are found throughout the region.

If you understand that there is a multitude of religions in Turkey, you will notice more complex versions of their buildings of hotels belonging to Muslim groups, such as Turkish Airlines or the Rüya Palas Hotel in Ankara. Finally, traditional Turkish structures also convey more family values ​​from smaller homes with courtyards and open spaces that allow for more socialization between neighbors, while the use of quality materials and space-saving designs maximize utilization efficiency.


Football or “Soccer” is one of the most popular sports in Turkey. This sport is popular among different age groups and among people living near the sea.

Football unites all walks of life and has therefore become a symbol of national identity and we see people wearing clothes with its emblematic colors on all occasions.

Statistically, the Turkish national team is one of the most successful teams in football history. They have qualified for 17 international tournaments and always put in the best performances there, which ultimately brought them four World Cup victories. Apart from their 4 World Cups, they also have 5 Intercontinental Cups and 16 Balkan Cups under their belt.

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